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Cf. PUBLICATION: Nuclear Deals and Nuclear Arms in Ukrainian War. An annotated documentary on the military conflict around the Zaporizhzhya NPP, in: Forschungshorizonte Politik & Kultur, Vol. 7, 2023/1, 46 pages.

Berlin, Deutschland


With the Ukraine war on 24.2.2022, for the first time in the history of modern warfare, a nuclear power plant (NPP) is at the centre of a military conflict. Right at the beginning, the Russian military occupied the NPP ruins of Chernobyl in the north of Ukraine, a few days later the NPP Zaporizhzhya in the south, the largest nuclear reactor in Europe. On 10 July 2022, the Ukrainian company Energodatom called on the military to take it back by force (energoatom, 10.7.2022). Since then, the NPP has been under repeated grenade fire (over 300 impacts until the end of December 2022), although representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) arrived on site in early September.

In his report to the UN Security Council, IAEA chief Rafael Grossi said: “We are playing with fire, and something catastrophic could happen.” (, 7.9.2022: 3) Therefore Grossi proposed demilitarisation of the area around the NPP, but so far without success. This is partly due to the fact that the IAEA bowed to pressure from the G7 and took Ukraine’s side in this conflict. As a result, Russia took full possession of the nuclear power plant by  Decree of 5.10.2022. This made it obvious that the grenade attacks were (also) coming from the Ukrainian military. Since then, Moscow has threatened that a provoked nuclear accident at the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant would be similar to the use of a tactical nuclear weapon and lead to a nuclear response.

The original version of this documentary from September 2022 has been shortened and divided into three focus topics due to lack of space: The issue  4/2022 ocuses on important News on Zaporizhzhya NPP and provides translated quotes from Ukrainian and Russian sources with links to the original documents. This issue 5/2022 (see below) is titled Nuclear Deals in the Ukraine War and confronts the reader with the interests of the nuclear industry and the potential misuse of NPPs as tactical nuclear weapons. Issue 6/2022, titled World free of Nuclear Weapons shows ways out of the threatening nuclear confrontation: Since 22.1.2021, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) has come into force, banning both research and the deployment of nuclear weapons.

Possibly the nuclear industry and the IAEA as its interest group have become nervous so that they seek to set up new facts. This explains why the IAEA declared in the middle of the Ukraine war that nuclear power was on the rise worldwide. This makes it all the more important to inform the public that it is not a “clean” technology and can be misused for weapons in the context of dual-use research. The public is hardly aware that about 60 km northwest of the Ukrainian NPP Zaporizhzhya is located the largest radioactively contaminated area in the world, the decommissioned chemical plant Prydniprovsky (PCP). There, 15 times as much nuclear waste is stored as in the Chernobyl NPP ruins, partly in the open air. … The three focus topics can be read at length in the above-mentioned publication by the author: Nuclear Deals and Nuclear Arms in Ukrainian War, in: Forschungshorizonte Politik & Kultur, Vol. 6, 2022/11, 42 pages




INFORMATIONS (own texts with “quotations”, of Ukrainian and Russian sources into English: S.R.)

SOURCES (author, title, URL etc.)


According to information from the official Ukrainian Website UATOM the Soviet Union planned to build 5 NPPs on the territory of Ukraine during this period: Zaporozhye, Rivne, Khmelnytskyi, Chernobyl and South Ukraine. They were to have a total capacity of 14,800 megawatts (MW).

“10 units, 8 of which with capacity of 1000 MW (four VVER-1000 reactors and four RBMK-1000 reactors) were in the operation at the time of technogenic accident at the fourth unit of Chornobyl NPP in April 1986 in Ukraine. From 1986 and till 1990 6 nuclear power units with the capacity of 1000MW each were put into operation: three units at Zaporizhzhya NPP and one unit for each nuclear power plant, which are South-Ukraine, Rivne and Khmelnytsky NPP.”

Website on nuclear and radiation safety and non-proliferation, Operating NPPs, Kiev 2019,


The State Specialised Enterprise “Chernobyl NPP” (SS ChNPP) of Ukraine is now responsible for the Chernobyl nuclear ruin. The website provides detailed information, including the history of the NPP, among other things: After the most recent unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP exploded and unit 2 was damaged in 1991, Ukraine shut down unit 1 in 1996 and unit 3 in 2000. The construction of two more reactors was already stopped in 1988. The Zaporizhzhya NPP therefore became the most important nuclear plant in Ukraine. 

SSE ChNPP, Chornobyl NPP, History of the ChNPP, 2022,



During this period, six reactors of the Zaporizhzhya NPP were commissioned, with an operating life of 30 years. According to information from UATOM and the Ukrainian Ministry of Health, reactor units 1-4 will finally go offline 10 years later (as of 2019). They would have passed a stress test after the accident at the Fukushima NPP in Japan (11.3.2011).

Website on nuclear and radiation safety and non-proliferation, Operating NPPs, Kiev 2019,


After Ukraine’s state independence, Kiev continued the initial Soviet energy policy of developing nuclear energy. The 1990 moratorium, which had stopped the construction of new reactors as a result of the Chernobyl accident, was lifted:

Since December 1991, the nuclear power plants were under the control of the Ukratomenergoprom corporation, and from January 1993, the “State Nuclear Energy Committee of Ukraine – Derzhkomatom of Ukraine”. After the commissioning of unit 6 of the Zaporizhzhya NPP (1995), it became the largest nuclear power plant in Europe with a capacity of 6 million KW. On 17.10.1996, the national enterprise National Energy Generating Company – “Energoatom” was founded.

Website on nuclear and radiation safety and non-proliferation, Operating NPPs, Kiev 2019,


“Today [2019], there are 15 power units in operation at Ukrainian NPPs, 13 of which are VVER-1000-type and 2 VVER-440-type, with a total installed capacity of 13,835 MW, which amounts to 26.3% of the total installed capacity of all Ukrainian power plants.”

Cайт по вопросам ядерной безопасности, радиационной защиты и нераспространения ядерного оружия, Действующие АЭС [Cf. the divergent English text below:], Київ 2019,

Cf. Website on nuclear and radiation safety and non-proliferation, Operating NPPs, Kiev 2019,


The Ministry of Energy of Ukraine provides the following information on its website about the organisational structure and development of its energy policy: 

“At the end of 1999, by decree of the President of Ukraine, the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Ukraine was formed on the basis of the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Coal Industry, the State Department of Electric Power, the State Department of the Oil, Gas and Oil Refining Industry, and the State Department of Nuclear Energy. […]

Today, the United Energy System of Ukraine is one of the largest energy associations in Europe, which includes seven regional electric power systems (REES): Dnipro, Western, Crimean, Southern, South-Western, Northern and Central, interconnected by system-forming and trunk lines power transmission lines (LEP) 750 kV and 330-500 kV2. […]

On March 16, 2022, a historic event took place: the Ukrainian energy system was finally disconnected from its Soviet past – the power grid of Russia and Belarus. Against the backdrop of the Russian military invasion, more than a year ahead of schedule, Ukraine’s energy system was fully synchronised with the ENTSO-E power grid of continental Europe. The relevant decision was adopted by the association of system operators ENTSO-E on March 11, 2022. After synchronisation, the United Energy System of Ukraine works stably, the frequency is maintained at the level of 50 Hz.

Міністерство енергетики Украіни, Історія енергетики [Ministry of Energy of Ukraine, History of Energy], Kiev, 16.3.2022,

Cf. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E), Brussels, DUkraine is a member of ENTSO-E, represented by the national company UKRENERGO, Kiev:

Національна комісія, що здійснює державне регулювання у сферах енергетики та комунальних послуг (НКРЕКП) [National Commission for State Regulation of Energy and Public Utilities], Kiev:


Three gas pipelines with a diameter of 1400 mm and a transit capacity of 244 million cubic metres of gas per day run through the “Sudzha” station on the Ukrainian border with Russia in the north-east (see map below). The Ukrainian transit operator GTS has so far only committed to a transit volume of 109.6 million cubic metres per day. It published the following data (cf. map below and source on the right): 

“It should be noted that the average daily transit volume through the point of connection “Sudzha” was:
• in 2017 – 181.2 million cubic meters;
• in 2018 – 170.7 million cubic meters;
• in 2019 – 180.3 million cubic meters;
• in 2020 (already under the new transit agreement) – 130.1 million cubic meters.

For the same period, the maximum volumes reached:
• in 2017 – 247.7 million cubic meters;
• in 2018 – 245.3 million cubic meters;
• in 2019 – 241 million cubic meters;
• in 2020 – 165.1 million cubic meters.

According to the existing transit agreement for 2020-2025, which provided for the transit of 65 billion cubic meters of natural gas in 2020, the contract capacity at the point of “Sudzha” was 150.7 million cubic meters per day.

Moreover, a similar transfer of capacity from Sokhranivka to Sudzha took place from October 12 to 25, 2020, due to scheduled repairs. At that time, gas transit through the Sudzha entry point was 165.1 million cubic meters per day.

Therefore, the allegations about the impossibility of transferring flows from Sokhranivka to Sudzha point do not correspond to reality.”

Conclusion: In 2020, Ukraine concluded gas supply contracts with Russia until 2025. According to its own data, Ukraine has at times imported more gas per day from Russia in recent years than it had planned. The Ukrainian transit operator GTS wants to increase this volume to 244 million cubic metres of gas per day and thus completely replace Nord Stream-1 and Nord Stream-2 (see source below). Ukrainian energy companies will benefit from the halt of the Nord Stream-2 gas pipeline and expand their business with transit gas from Russia. 

Gas Transmission System Operator of Ukraine, Limited Liability Company, Regarding the technical possibility of transferring transit volumes to GMS “Sudzha” Kiev, 11.5.2022,

Cf. video on YouTube:

Українська ГТС – енергетичний щит Європи | Як Україна перемогла кремль у “газових війнах”, 5 канал [Ukrainian GTS – The Energy Shield of Europe. How Ukraine defeated the Kremlin in the “gas wars”, 5 channel], Kiev, 29.11.2018, YouTube:


The Gas Transmission System Operator of Ukraine (GTS) promoted via social media (Telegram) the largest Ukrainian pipeline for the transit of Russian gas “Sudzha” (see map above, Ukraine-Russia border in the north-east). Director General Serhiy Makogon [uk. Сергій Макогон] said this could supply all of Europe in the future: “Nord Stream-1 and Nord Stream-2 are superfluous.”

Further, on Telegram, it said:

“The technical capacity of the “Sudzha” pipeline is 244 million cubic metres [of gas per day]. 💪 It is sufficient for Europe to receive the following:

✅  reliable gas transport;
✅  reduction of the price of blue fuel;
✅  the possibility to prepare effectively for the heating season.

Instead, the Russians are deliberately restricting gas supplies not only through the controlled Nord Stream-1, but also through Ukraine:
Of the 109 million cubic metres [gas per day] contract capacity, the Russians are only using 42 million.”

Map: На “трубі”: репортаж з диспетчерської української ГТС [In the “tube”: a message from the control room of the Ukrainian GTS], Kiev, 7.3.2018,

Source: Оператор газотранспортноі системи Украіни [Оператор ГТС України, Gas Transmission System Operator of Ukraine, Gas Transmission System Operator of Ukraine], Kiev, 25.7.2022, Telegram: Contact @gastsoua,



National Power Company Ukrenergo is a private joint stock company with 100% state-owned shares, managed by the Ministry of Energy of Ukraine […]

Аt the end of 2021 Ukrenergo has applied for ENTSO-E observer-membership.
Ukrenergo made every effort to ensure the formation of secondary legislation on the functioning of the new model of the electricity market, as well as introduced the Market management system (MMS) platform for the purchase/sale of electricity in the balancing market and the ancillary services market.

Ukrenergo is one of the key players in the electricity market, which performs the functions of the administrator of commercial metering and the administrator of settlements, as well as its obligations to ensure the public interest (PSO) in the functioning of the electricity market.”

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E), Brussels,

Ukraine is a member of ENTSO-E, represented by:

Національна енергетична компанія «Укренерго» [National Power Company UKRENERGO], Kiev,




INFORMATIONS (own texts with “quotations”, of Ukrainian and Russian sources into English: S.R.)

SOURCES (author, title, URL etc.)


Ukrainian scientist Volodymyr Tykhyy gave a lecture at the Reactor Research Centre of Kyoto University, Kumatori, Japan. The topic: “Punishing legacy of atomic bomb and nuclear energy projects in Ukraine“. In it, he informs about various measures taken by the Ukrainian government to safely store the radioactive waste and about the health consequences for the population of Ukraine (status: 2011).

One relevant piece of information: Until the beginning of 2011, Ukraine had hardly any capacity of its own to safely store the expired nuclear fuel rods: “Parliament decision needed to construct CSF [Chernobyl Shelter Fund, S.R.]; in the meantime, Ukrainian spent nuclear fuel from 9 VVER units is shipped to Russia. [p. 25]

Further relevant are data on the health consequences: “In all groups of sufferers TC prevalence [disease of thyroid cancer, S.R.] is higher than nationwide average: in liquidators – 5.6 times [approx. 1 million emergency workers to secure the damaged Chernobyl NPP], in evacuated – 4.4 times, in those
who live on contaminated territories – 1.4 times [p. 28].

Volodymyr Tykhyy, Punishing legacy of atomic bomb and nuclear energy projects in Ukraine, Seminar at Kyoto University Research
Reactor Institute, Kumatori, 16.3.2011,


The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) reports the commissioning of the world’s largest repository for expired nuclear fuel rods. On the restricted area of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant ruins, the Interim Storage Facility 2 (ISF-2) will become operational in early 2021: More than 21,000 spent fuel elements from the shutdown reactors of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant will be safely stored there for at least 100 years. 

“Balthasar Lindauer, EBRD Director, Nuclear Safety, said: ‘This is a momentous achievement that stands testament to the many days, weeks and years that the EBRD, donors, contractors and Ukraine have dedicated to delivering this critical safety project. We have had to overcome many challenges to reach this point, but it is all the more gratifying that we eventually got there.” […] The Interim Storage Facility 2 cost €400 million and was financed with contributions from Belgium, Canada, Denmark, the European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.”

Axel Reiserer, Historic milestone at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, News, 18.11.2020,


The Norwegian Bellona Foundation for Environmental and Climate Protection reports on the largest radioactively contaminated area in Europe, the decommissioned Prydniprovsky chemical plant, cf. ukr. Придніпровський хімічний завод (ПХЗ). It is a disused uranium mine on the banks of the Dnipro/Dnepr River in Ukraine near the town of Kamianske, about 60 km northwest of the Zaporizhzhya NPP. Between 1949 and 1991, it had supplied the entire Soviet Union with uranium ore. The factory processed the ore into yellowcake, a powder made of uranium compounds. The contaminated area around the PCP (eng. Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant) covers 2.5 square kilometres, where some 36 million tonnes of radioactive residues are stored in 9 open-air landfills: The author reports:

“It’s called the Pridnieproskvy Chemical Plant and it now houses more than 15 times the amount of radioactive waste to be found within the rubble of Chernobyl’s No 4 reactor, which exploded in 1986.

Much of this waste lies in the open air, wholly unshielded from humans and the environment, or marked off by patches of fencing that gives no warning about what it encloses. In other places at the site, long neglected waste from uranium processing, called uranium tailings, emits toxic gasses and leaks into ground water and waterways.

For the past three decades, the PCP has been only sporadically policed, with Ukrainian government efforts aimed at its cleanup both insufficient and poorly funded. Foreign governments have tried to pitch in, but their financing has been directed at issues that fail to address the problem as a whole.”

The article quotes the office manager of the NGO Bellona in St. Petersburg: “It’s impossible to figure out what has actually been done, what the situation at the PCP is, who is responsible and overseeing the project, and what its prospects are.

Charles Digges, The most dangerous place in Europe is one you have never heard of, Oslo, 22.9.2021,

Further: Yuriy Tkachenko, The Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant – Ukraine’s Uranium Heritage, Bellona Foudation, Oslo, 2020,

Source: Location of the decommissioned Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant (PCP), about 60 km northwest of the Zaporizhzhya NPP: Dniprodzerzhynsk Ukraine map.png, Skluesener, 5.1.2007


The EU Diplomatic Service issued a statement at a meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors in Vienna on 9.3.2022 condemning Russia’s military operation and occupation of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants as an “unjustified military aggression”. Without examining the situation on the ground, the “European Union reiterates its unwavering support for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognised borders. We will stand firmly by Ukraine’s side.”

It took no position on Moscow’s accusations that Ukraine violates the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty with its research on nuclear weapons. In retrospect, one passage is particularly important:

We must do everything that we can to prevent a nuclear accident, incident or other radiological emergency that could seriously impact local populations, neighbouring countries and the international community. It is time to act to avoid such a scenario. […] The EU stands ready to provide any assistance the Director General would require to achieve this goal.”

The Diplomatic Service of the European Union, EU Statement on safety, security and safeguards implications of the situation in Ukraine as delivered at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors on 9 March 2022,  Vienna,


In its report on Ukraine’s nuclear safety, IAEA supports Kiev’s official statements. According to the report, Russia’s accusations that Ukraine is researching new nuclear weapons and violating the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty are unfounded:

“Based on the evaluation of all safeguards relevant information available to the IAEA to date,
the IAEA has not found any indication of the diversion of declared nuclear material or any
indication that would give rise to a proliferation concern.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Safety and Security of Nuclear Facilities in Ukraine, 24.2. – 28.4.2022, p. 24,


The 35 member states of the IAEA Board of Governors adopted a resolution calling on Russia to withdraw completely from the nuclear power plant. In addition, Moscow alone is held responsible for the military attacks on the nuclear power plant. According to World Nuclear News, the resolution states:

The board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 
“deplores” Russia’s “persistent violent actions against nuclear facilities in Ukraine”, and “calls upon” Russia to “immediately cease all actions against, and at, the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant and any other nuclear facility in Ukraine in order for the competent Ukrainian authorities to regain full control over all nuclear facilities within Ukraine’s internationally recognised borders”.

According to this press report, Russia and China voted against the resolution. Egypt, South Africa, Senegal, Burundi, Vietnam, India and Pakistan abstained, while 26 states voted in favour of the resolution: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Ireland, Japan, Republic of Korea, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and the USA.

IAEA board calls for Russia to hand over control of Zaporizhzhia, World Nuclear News, 16.9.2022,


The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) reports on its website about the situation at the Zaporizhzhya NPP:

“In view of the tense situation at the Ukrainian NPP Zaporizhzhya, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is monitoring the situation on site particularly closely. In August and September, the power plant was again and repeatedly the target of attacks. However, there are no indications that radioactive substances could have escaped. […]

BfS does not see any acute danger of a release of radioactive substances in Zaporizhzhya, but shares the concern of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) about a permanently safe operation of the power plant.”

Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Aktuelles, BfS verfolgt Lage am AKW Saporischschja [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, News, BfS is monitoring the situation at the Zaporizhzhya NPP,], Salzgitter, 19.9.2022, Kurzmeldungen/BfS/DE/ 2022/0225-ukraine.html. This URL was no longer accessible on 15.11.2022, it appeared almost word for word under the URL:


The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publishes the latest forecasts on the future of the peaceful use of nuclear power. For the first time since the reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, (11.3.2011.) the share of nuclear power in electricity generation has risen again worldwide. It could increase from 10 to 14 per cent by 2050: The report states:  

” ‘We are at a defining moment in the world’s transition to a more secure, stable and affordable energy future,’ IAEA Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi said. ‘Driven by the impacts of climate change and the energy crisis, governments are reconsidering their portfolios in favour of nuclear power. But for the high case scenario to be achieved, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including regulatory and industrial harmonization and progress in high level waste disposal.’ “

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA Projections for Nuclear Power Growth Increase for Second Year Amid Climate, Energy Security Concerns, Press Release 26.9.2022,


The IAEA’s projections were published as: ‘42nd edition of RDS-1‘. The report provides estimates of energy, electricity and nuclear power trends up to 2050, taking into account global and regional trends.

The two figures below show that the US is the world’s largest producer of nuclear power. They generate about twice as much as China or France and just under four times that of the Russian Federation. Ukraine is still ahead of Germany and Japan in the ranking (see figure below left). The figure on the right shows the share of nuclear energy in total electricity generation by country. France is at the top with 69 per cent, directly followed by Ukraine with 55 per cent. In the USA and Russia the share is just over 19 percent, and in Germany it is 11.9 percent. 

Conclusion: The member states of the EU, as well as Ukraine, are world leaders in terms of the share of nuclear power in their own energy production.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050, Wien 2022, cf. Figures p. 12 und 13,

It is interesting to take a closer look at the finances of the IAEA. Apparently, the membership contributions are not linked to the amount of domestic nuclear power production. For Ukraine pays only 0.06 per cent of the IAEA’s annual budget, while Germany does 5.9 per cent, although they produce about the same amount of nuclear power (see figure above left). The figure below shows the disproportionate budget share of the G7 states and thus their strong influence on IAEA policy: the USA and the European states (EU, UK and EFTA) alone provide about 50 percent of the budget. The figure below is an own compilation and is based on IAEA data (see right).

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Scale of assessment of Member States’ contributions towards the Regular Budget for 2022, GC(65)/RES/7, Date: September 2021,


On the same day that the four Ukrainian regions of Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson, Zaporizhzhya and the Russian Federation signed the accession treaty in Moscow, the USA and Albania submitted a resolution to the 15-member UN Security Council condemning the Russian annexation of Ukrainian territories. It failed because of Russia’s veto. Four other states, China, Brazil, India and Gabon abstained. The three permanent members of the UN Security Council, the USA, the United Kingdom and France, as well as the non-permanent members Ireland, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, Albania, Ghana and the United Arab Emirates voted in favour.

On the same day, the Russian energy company Gazprom reported that there had been explosions at the two gas pipelines Nord Stream 1 and 2 in the North Sea. The cause of the supposed sabotage is still unknown. The Ukrainian energy company Energoatom announced that the head of the Zaporizhzhya NPP, Ihor Murashov, had been arrested (see above, 1.10.2022).

United Nations, Russia vetoes Security Council resolution condemning attempted annexation of Ukraine regions, UN News, New York, 30.9.2022,

Gazprom says 800 million cubic metres of gas escaped from pipelines, Tass reports, reuters, 30.9.2022,




INFORMATIONS (own texts with “quotations”, of Ukrainian and Russian sources into English: S.R.)

SOURCES (author, title, URL etc.)


An article on the problem of nuclear proliferation appears in the Western media. The US Stimson Center in Washington reports that Kiev is planning to expand the Ukrainian repository in Chernobyl. In future, all spent fuel from the Ukrainian NPPs is to be stored there:

“Chornobyl is also the location of the world’s largest dry spent fuel storage facility, where 21,000 spent fuel assemblies from reactors 1, 2, and 3 will be stored.5 [Link:, 18.11.2020, s.o.] It is also the site of the newly built Centralized Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CFSF), intended to store spent fuel from nine reactors at the Rivne, Khmennitsky, and South Ukraine plants. In January 2020, operators anticipated the CFSF would receive its first shipments in April. […]

Historically, Ukraine has received most of its nuclear services and fuel from Russia, but has been moving in recent years to increase its energy independence. Westinghouse first tested and refined its fuel assemblies for VVER reactors at South Ukraine in 2005. Under the 2008 contract between Westinghouse and Ukraine’s Energoatom, Ukraine could buy fuel for reloading three of the South Ukrainian reactors in 2011-2015,7[Link:, 11.11.2014]  and in 2014 Ukraine signed fuel contracts with Westinghouse which were extended in 2018. By the beginning of 2022, nearly half of the fuel in Ukraine’s nuclear power plants was provided by Westinghouse.8 [Link:, 18.12.2019]”

The Stimson Center, Ukraine. Nuclear Annexation: A New Proliferation Concern?, Washington, 23.3.2022,


The British website World Nuclear News (WNN) gives more information about the new nuclear repository CSFSF in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP:

“The CSFSF is a dry storage site for used nuclear fuel assemblies from seven VVER-1000 and two VVER-440 reactors at the Rivne, Khmennitsky and South Ukraine nuclear power plants. It is designed to have a total storage capacity of 16,530 used fuel assemblies, including 12,010 VVER-1000 assemblies and 4520 VVER-440 assemblies. Contracts were signed for its construction with USA-based Holtec International in 2005, though construction only began in 2017.”

World Nuclear News, Ukraine’s centralised used fuel storage facility ‘ready’, London, 21.4.2022,


The Ukrainian energy company Energoatom reports the signing of a contract with the US energy company Westinghouse. The ceremony was also attended by Ukrainian Energy Minister Herman Halushchenko and the Swedish ambassador to Ukraine. The contract is intended to deepen cooperation in the field of power generation and the introduction of a new AR1000 technology.

“On 2 June 2022, […] the president of [national state-owned enterprise] Energoatom, Petro Kotin, the president and CEO of Westinghouse Electric Company, Patrick Fregman, and the vice-president and managing director of Westinghouse, Aziz Dag, signed three agreements:

  • On the supply of nuclear fuel for all nuclear power plants in Ukraine;
  • on the intention to build 9 nuclear power plant units based on the American AR1000 technology;
  • on the establishment of a Westinghouse technical centre in Ukraine.

At the start of construction of units 5 and 6 of the Khmelnytskyi NPP, which will be built using AR1000 technology, the heads of both companies erected and ceremonially opened a commemorative sign.

Every such event in the energy sector also brings Ukraine’s victory closer!”

Енергоатом та Westinghouse розширюють співпрацю [Energoatom and Westinghouse expand cooperation], Kiew, 2.6.2022,;

Cf. the Youtube video of the signing of the contract: Енергоатом та Westinghouse розширюють співпрацю співпрацю [Energoatom and Westinghouse expand cooperation], Kiew, 2.6.2022,


The Ukrainian energy company Energoatom comments on the conclusion of the contract with Westinghouse as a great opportunity. Its head, Petro Kotin, reveals the Ukrainian government’s plans to make the country a world leader in nuclear energy and a centre of nuclear research.

The agreements reached by Energoatom with its long-term partner, the American company Westinghouse, mark a new stage in the development of Ukraine’s energy industry, says Mr Kotin [head of Energoatom]. Finally, thanks to joint projects, Ukraine will become one of the world leaders in the field of nuclear energy and will have a powerful and modern fleet of nuclear power plants that will generate clean electricity for our country as well as for the whole of Europe. […]

The Westinghouse state-of-the-art engineering and technical centre that supports these projects will become a locomotive for the development of domestic nuclear science and technology and a powerful centre for the training of nuclear engineers, the head of Energoatom is convinced.”

Завдяки спільним проєктам з Westinghouse Україна стане одним зі світових лідерів ядерної енергетики [Thanks to joint projects with Westinghouse, Ukraine will become one of the world leaders in nuclear energy], Kiev, 4.6.2022,


An international conference on the reconstruction of Ukraine took place in Lugano, Switzerland. The Ukrainian Energy Minister Herman Halushchenko spoke about the perspectives of the Ukrainian energy sector. Nuclear energy, which covers 60 percent of the national electricity demand, is to be expanded. The planned construction of 9 reactors would require an investment of 12 billion US dollars.

“According to Herman Halushchenko, our country strives to further develop nuclear industry: ‘It is of the utmost importance that even in wartime, in this challenging period, there are companies ready to invest in Ukraine right now. We have agreements with the Westinghouse company, which provide for the construction of 9 new nuclear power units using AP 1000 technology in the near-term’. The first of these 9 to be built are two – the 5th and 6th power units at the Khmelnytskyy NPP. The expected construction cost is about $12 billion. […]

In particular, the discussions were held related to the need to ramp up sanctions against russia in the energy field, increase the volume of Ukrainian electricity exports to EU countries as part of the process of replacing russian energy carriers in Europe, infrastructure projects, and cooperation for further sustainable development of the energy sector of Ukraine.

Special attention was paid to the prospects for the development of Ukrainian nuclear and green energy, and the creation of energy storage systems, in particular as a potential for investment.”

Nuclear is an essential component of the Ukrainian state reconstruction, Kiev, 7.7.2022,


Energoatom participated in a round table on rebuilding the Ukrainian economy. The organiser was the American Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). Also represented were the energy company Westinghouse, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the International Energy Agency (IEA), Holtec and the Ukrainian company URC-CRS.

“The main topic for discussion was russian aggression in Ukraine. Petro Kotin spoke in detail about the actions of the occupiers at the nuclear power plants of our country, in particular about the occupation of the Chornobyl and Zaporizhzhya NPPs as well as the attempt to seize the South Ukraine nuclear power plant.

[…] ‘International aid is crucial  for the entire country in general and for our company in particular. We seek for greater clarity and greater impetus from the IAEA in liberating ZNPP from the russian occupiers’, Petro Kotin stressed.”

Defence of Ukrainian NPPs means defence of whole Europe, Kiev, 14.7.2022,


The head of Ukrainian energy company Energoatom, Petro Kotin, meets with US Ambassador Bridget Brink. They discuss legislative proposals for strengthening the national company Energoatom and its cooperation with the US:

“Petro Kotin expressed his gratitude to the U.S. Government for the constant and comprehensive support of Ukraine and Energoatom, as well as assistance at the political level in matters of imposing sanctions against the aggressor country.”

Today, November 22, 2022, a meeting between the President of the Company Petro Kotin and the U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Bridget A. Brink took place in the Head Office of SE «NNEGC «Energoatom», Kiev,


The Ukrainian energy company Energoatom consolidates cooperation with the Canadian company CAMECO for the supply of uranium and promotion of domestic uranium production in the Dnipropetrovsk region, north of the Dnieper River (joint venture with the French company Areva, among others).

“They discussed the possibility of supplying uranium hexafluoride, which will ensure nuclear fuel manufacturing for Ukrainian nuclear power plants. Also during the meeting, the sides touched upon the importance of long-term – until 2035 – cooperation between Energoatom and CAMECO.

Such interaction will guarantee the safety of nuclear fuel supply to Energoatom. In addition, the cooperation of the companies is also crucial amid increasing the efficiency of uranium production at the domestic Eastern Mining and Processing Plant.“

On December 21, 2022, an online meeting was held between the President of SE “NNEGC “Energoatom” Petro Kotin and the President and Chief Executive Officer of CAMECO Tim Gitzel, Kiev, 21.12.2022,




INFORMATIONS (own texts with “quotations”, of Ukrainian and Russian sources into English: S.R.)

SOURCES (author, title, URL etc.)


The Declaration of Sovereignty of the former Ukrainian Soviet Republic of 16.7.1990, which was implemented one and a half years later (1.12.1991), states:

IX. External and Internal Security: 

“The Ukrainian SSR solemnly proclaims its intention to become in the future a permanently neutral state that does not take part in military blocs and adheres to three non-nuclear principles: not to accept, not to produce and not to acquire nuclear weapons.”

X. International Relations

“The relations of the Ukrainian SSR with other Soviet republics are based on treaties concluded on the principles of equality, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs.

The Declaration is the basis for the new Constitution, laws of Ukraine and defines the position of the Republic in the conclusion of international agreements. The principles of the Declaration of Sovereignty of Ukraine are used to conclude a union treaty.

Adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR”

MEGET, Информационно-аналитический портал про недвижимость, Декларация о государственном суверенитете Украины от 16 июля 1990 года N55-XII [MEGET, Real estate information and analysis portal, Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine N55-XII of July 16, 1990], Kiev 2022,


The Ukrainian Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) adopts the Law on the Accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1 July 1968. Ukraine thus renounced the possession of all nuclear weapons. On the day of its independence on 1.12.1991, it had risen to become the third largest nuclear power in the world and had an overkill capacity to destroy the entire globe several times over. On its soil were stored 176 strategic and approx. 2500 tactical nuclear missiles of the USSR. With the official renunciation of these weapons, Ukraine implemented announcements from its declaration of sovereignty of 16.7.1990 (see above). The new text of the law emphasises:

2. Ukraine is the owner of nuclear weapons inherited from the former USSR. After dismantling and destroying these weapons under Ukraine’s control and in accordance with procedures that exclude the possibility of reusing the nuclear materials that are components of these weapons for their original purpose, Ukraine intends to use the above-mentioned materials exclusively for peaceful purposes.”

However, Ukraine identifies as item 4 “exceptional circumstances” that could endanger its interests: Attacks by nuclear powers on its national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and the application of economic pressure. Admittedly, the text does not threaten any consequences for such a case, for example the termination of the treaty. However, this clause has become more important since 23 February 2014. While Russia interprets the pro-Western regime change as a breach of the security guarantees, the Western states and Ukraine see the breach of the treaty on the part of Russia through its annexation of Crimea.

Верховна Ради України, Про приєднання України до Договору про нерозповсюдження ядерної зброї від 1 липня 1968 року [On Ukraine’s accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of July 1, 1968], Kiev, 16.11.1994,


On the day of its independence on 1.12.1991, Ukraine became the third largest nuclear power in the world. In accordance with the Declaration of Sovereignty of 16 July 1990 (see above) and the Law on Accession to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (16 November 1994), Kiev signed the Budapest Memorandum. In return for renouncing the possession of nuclear weapons, Ukraine received security guarantees regarding its state sovereignty from Russia, the United Kingdom and the USA:

“Ukraine, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America,

Welcoming the Accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on Non-Poliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear weapon state, 

Talking into account the commitment of Ukraine to eliminate all nuclear weapons from its territory within a specified period of time,

Nothing the changes in word-wide security situation, including the end of the Cold War, which have brought about conditions for deep recductions in nuclear forces […] .” 

Budapest Memorandum 1994, Ukraine, Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America, Memorandum on security assurances in connection with Ukraine’s a ccession to the Treaty. on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Budapest, 5 December 1994,


In a speech at the Munich Security Conference, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Selenskyj, announced that Ukraine would no longer abide by the Budapest Memorandum (1994) if NATO and the EU could no longer guarantee Ukraine’s security. He is thus calling for accession to both organisations. Abrogating the Memorandum is tantamount to withdrawing from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. 

“Since 2014, Ukraine has tried three times to convene consultations with the guarantor states of the Budapest Memorandum. Three times without success. Today Ukraine will do it for the fourth time. I, as President, will do this for the first time. But both Ukraine and I are doing this for the last time. I am initiating consultations in the framework of the Budapest Memorandum. The Minister of Foreign Affairs was commissioned to convene them. If they do not happen again or their results do not guarantee security for our country, Ukraine will have every right to believe that the Budapest Memorandum is not working and all the package decisions of 1994 are in doubt. […]

What else can we do now? Continue to effectively support Ukraine and its defense capabilities. Provide Ukraine with a clear European perspective, the tools of support available to candidate countries, and clear and comprehensive timeframes for joining the Alliance.”

Zelensky’s full speech at Munich Security Conference, The Independent, Kyiv, 19.2.2022,


Following the Ukrainian President’s speech at the Munich Security Conference on 19.2.2022 (see above), a BBC article analyses the likelihood and consequences of a “possible return of Ukraine’s nuclear status” two days before the start of the Ukraine war. 

The article quotes not only from the Ukrainian president‘s speech (same quote see above), but also Russian statements on the matter, including from Russian President Vladimir Putin:

” ‘There have already been statements that Ukraine will develop its own nuclear weapons, and this is not an empty boast. Ukraine really has all the Soviet nuclear technologies and means to deliver such weapons, including, in particular, operational-tactical missiles ‘Tochka-U’, also of Soviet design, whose range exceeds 100 kilometres’, Putin said. […]

‘With the emergence of weapons of mass destruction in Ukraine, the situation in the world, in Europe, especially for us, for Russia, will change dramatically. We cannot but respond to this real danger, especially as I repeat that Western patrons can contribute to the emergence of such weapons in Ukraine. to create another threat to our country,’ Putin added.”

Георгий Эрман, Может ли Украина вернуть себе ядерное оружие? И во что это ей обойдется? [Georgi Erman, Can Ukraine get nuclear weapons back? And what will it cost them?], BBC News, 22.2.2022,


On the very first day of the Ukraine war, Kiev informed the IAEA that armed forces had taken control of all Chernobyl NPP facilities within the exclusion zone. There had been no casualties or destruction. An IAEA statement on the situation in Ukraine said:

“The Director General stressed that the IAEA General Conference – the annual gathering of all the organization’s Member States – adopted a decision in 2009 saying ‘any armed attack on and threat against nuclear facilities devoted to peaceful purposes constitutes a violation of the principles of the United Nations Charter, international law and the Statute of the Agency’.”

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine, Vienna, 24.2.2022,

IAEA General Conference, Decision GC(53)/DEC/13, 18.9.2009,


Four days after the start of the Ukraine war on 24.2.2022, Russia informed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna that it had taken military control over the area of the Zaporizhzhya NPP. However, the NPP itself remains under Ukraine’s supervision (until the annexation of the region on 3.10.2022): 

“Earlier on 1 March, Ukraine informed the IAEA that all its nuclear power plants remained under the control of the national operator. In an update this morning, the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU) said it maintained communications with the country’s nuclear facilities and that the NPPs continued to operate normally.”

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Update 6 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine, Wien, 2.3.2022,


The president of Energoatom, Petro Kotin, told Ukrainian TV stations that only one of six reactor units was still in operation, but all reactors contained dangerous nuclear fuel that could be damaged by grenades. He reported resistance to the Russian occupation of the Zaporizhzhya NPP, with targeted shellfire hitting the science and training centre and the administration building, and destroying a training centre building and a scaffolding structure. At 4:30 h, the Ukrainians gave up their resistance, saying that the connection with Energoatom had been broken. Kotin literally:

“What threat is posed by what we have? Six reactors. There is fuel in each of them, a full load. Three reactor pools also have spent nuclear fuel. There is also a separated nuclear facility at the plant, a dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel that now has 150 containers of spent nuclear fuel.

Any projectile hitting it will cause a nuclear catastrophe. This is the main danger.”

На ЗАЭС работает один реактор, попадание снаряда приведет к ядерной катастрофе, Экономическая правда [ZNPP has a single reactor, a projectile hit would cause a nuclear catastrophe, Economic truth], Kiev, 4.3.2022,


The two news agencies Interfax and TASS quote a Russian government source as saying that Kiev has been researching the development of nuclear weapons since 1994, i.e. after Ukraine joined the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Since the pro-Western overthrow on 23 February 2014, supported by the USA, NATO countries have helped Ukraine to acquire the technology to enrich uranium. Moscow accuses Kiev of using the exclusion zone around the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant for testing new nuclear weapons, in the background of the contaminated site. The military occupation of the Zaporizhzhya NPP (ZNPP), the largest nuclear plant in Europe, was to secure evidence of Ukraine’s nuclear weapons programme and violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Russian agencies reported. Quotes from an unnamed person in the Russian government: 

” ‘Immediately after joining the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1994 as a non-nuclear weapon state, Ukraine began to carry out research and development to form the technological basis for the possible development of its own nuclear weapons. This work became clearly practical and increasingly active in 2014 after the well-known events in Ukraine at the tacit order of Poroshenko, then president of the country,’ the source said. […]

‘Separately, the use of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant zone as a site for nuclear weapons development is worth mentioning. It was there, according to available information, that work was carried out both on the production of a ‘dirty’ bomb and on the separation of plutonium. The naturally elevated radiation background in the Chernobyl zone concealed such work,’ the source said.”

Украина могла создать ядерное оружие в ближайшей перспективе – информированный источник в РФ [Ukraine could develop nuclear weapons in the near future – an informed Russian Federation source], Interfax, Moscow, 6.3.2022,

Lee also: 

История вопроса о безъядерном статусе Украины [Background on Ukraine’s nuclear-weapon-free status], Moscow, 6.3.2022,


The scientific journal Science published an article on the situation in Chernobyl after the Russian occupation. In it, Anatolii Nosovskyi, director of the Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (ISPNPP) in Kyiv, told a scientist from Maryland, USA, that it was very likely that looters had raided a radiation monitoring laboratory and stolen radioactive isotopes. They could be mixed with conventional explosives and used to make a ‘dirty bomb’ that could contaminate large areas with radioactivity:

“ISPNPP has a separate lab in Chornobyl with even more dangerous materials: ‘powerful sources of gamma and neutron radiation’ used to test devices, Nosovskyi says, as well as intensely radioactive samples of material leftover from the Unit Four meltdown. Nosovskyi has lost contact with the lab, he says, so ‘the fate of these sources is unknown to us’. “

Thus Ukraine confirms that it is conducting dual-use research with nuclear energy. The article further reports that Kiev has another thousand sites with radioactive material. According to official accounts, these would be strictly guarded. But there would also be critical voices: 

“But Vitaly Fedchenko, a nuclear security expert at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, notes that Ukraine, like other parts of the former Soviet Union, has not kept track of all the Soviet nuclear legacy. ‘There are a lot of radioactive sources that are not on anyone’s radar,’ he says. ‘Even Ukraine’s radar.’ “

Richard, Stone, Dirty bomb ingredients go missing from Chornobyl monitoring lab
Insecure radioactive materials are the latest worry as Russia continues occupation of infamous nuclear reservation, in: Science, Vol 376, Issue 6588, doi: 10.1126/science.abq2304, 25.3.2022,

Website of the Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (ISPNPP) in Kyiv: Інститут проблем безпеки атомних електростанцій (

Note: From the beginning on 24.2.2022 until the end of September 2022 of the Ukraine war, the Institute has not published any news.


In its report on Ukraine’s nuclear safety, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports Kiev’s official statements. According to the report, Russia’s accusations that Ukraine is researching new nuclear weapons and violating the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty are unfounded:

“Based on the evaluation of all safeguards relevant information available to the IAEA to date, the IAEA has not found any indication of the diversion of declared nuclear material or any indication that would give rise to a proliferation concern.“

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Safety and Security of Nuclear Facilities in Ukraine, 24.2. – 28.4.2022, p. 24,


The UN representative of the Russian Federation, Vassily Nebenzia, addresses the UN Securi-ty Council in a letter. He claims that since 18 July 2022, armed Ukrainian forces have been trying to retake the NPP Zaporizhzhya with multiple rocket launchers, small arms artillery and drones. Within the past month, there had been 12 attacks with about 50 artillery explosions and five kamikaze drones:

“The shelling resulted in damage to the power plant auxiliary support systems and to vital services of the city of Energodar.

The Ministry of Defence believes that Ukraine and its United States handlers are trying to play the card of causing what they regard as a minor breakdown at the nuclear power plant, disrupting its normal and safe operation, and blaming Russia.“

United Nations, General Assembly Security Council, A/76/924-S/2022/633, Letter dated 18 August 2022 from the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council,


The UN Security Council meeting discussed the role of the IAEA in monitoring the safety situation at the Zaporizhzhya NPP. The minutes of the meeting make it clear that all UN and IAEA measures require the agreement of Ukraine and the Russian Federation.

The UN representative of the Russian Federation, Vassily Nebenzia, denied Western and Ukrainian media reports that Russia had stationed weapons on the site of the nuclear power plant:

“Contrary to the false statements of the Kyiv regime and its handlers, Russia is not placing heavy weapons on the premises of the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant and is not using the plant for military purposes. The Russian Ministry of Defence is ready to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) high resolution images that show that no weapons, let alone heavy weapons, have been placed there.”

The UN representative of Ukraine, Mr. Kyslytsya received the closing remarks:

“Let me reiterate that the current situation makes it clear that the only thing that will ultimately eliminate the nuclear threat emanating from the illegal Russian presence at the nuclear power plant is the withdrawal of Russian weapons and troops and the return of the station to the legitimate control of Ukraine. Ukraine greatly appreciates the efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Nations to ensure the safety and security of all Ukrainian nuclear facilities against the backdrop of the Russian invasion.

United Nations, Security Council
Seventy-seventh year, 9114th meeting, S/PV.9114, 23,8.2022, New York,



The Director General of the Russian state-owned company Rosatom, A.E. Likhachev, met with the Director General of the IAEA, R. Grossi, in Istanbul. As Rosatom reports on its website, the Russian authorities were concerned with the safety of two NPPs: the  Zaporizhzhya NPP in Ukraine, which has been under Russian control since the beginning of March, and the Kursk NPP in western Russia, bordering the north-east of Ukraine:

“On the Russian side, the focus was placed on the priority tasks of ensuring the safety of nuclear facilities in Russia and Ukraine in the face of incessant shelling of the Zaporizhzhya NPP by Ukrainian armed groups and sabotage operations against the Kursk NPP.”

Rosatom introduces itself on its website as follows:

“State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom (ROSATOM) is one of global technological leaders, with capacities in the nuclear sector and beyond, and business partners in 50 countries. As one of the pioneers of the nuclear industry, ROSATOM has traditionally been at the forefront of the international nuclear market, including nuclear power plant construction, uranium mining and enrichment, and nuclear fuel fabrication and supply.”

Росатом, Глава Росатома А.Е. Лихачев встретился в Стамбуле с генеральным директором МАГАТЭ Р. Гросси [Rosatom, Rosatom head A.E. Likhachev met with IAEA Director General R. Grossi in Istanbul], Moscow, 24.8.2022,


The Ukrainian Energy Minister, Herman Halushchenko, announced one day before the visit of IAEA Director General Rafael Grossi on 1.9.2022 that Kiev would only follow his recommendations if it regained full control over the Zaporizhzhya NPP. He called for the withdrawal of the Russian military and the establishment of a demilitarised zone around the NPP:

“Herman Halushchenko stressed that ZNPP is a Ukrainian nuclear power plant and only Ukraine is able to guarantee the fulfilment of all components of operational safety. Therefore, the conclusions and recommendations based on the results of the mission’s work will be implemented when Ukraine regains full control over the NPP.”

Міністерство енергетики Украіни, Рекомендації місії МАГАТЕ будуть імплементовані при повернені ЗАЕС під контроль України – Герман Галущенко [Ukraine’s Energy Ministry, IAEA mission’s recommendations will be implemented after ZNPP returns to Ukraine’s control – Herman Galushchenko], Kiev, 31.8.2022,


As reported by the Russian news portal INTERFAX.RU, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has asked the IAEA for clarification on its report of 5.9.2022 on the current situation at the Zaporizhzhya NPP. He is quoted in the following text passages:

” ‘There is a need for further clarification because the report has a number of issues. I will not list them now, but we have requested these clarifications from the IAEA Director General,’  he told Interfax on the sidelines of the WEF taking place in Vladivostok, commenting on the IAEA report on the ZNPP situation.

Vasili Nebenzia, Russia regrets that the IAEA report does not identify the source of the ZNPP shelling, said earlier at a UN Security Council meeting.

‘We regret that your report on the implementation of IAEA safeguards in Ukraine for the period from April to September this year, which appeared just a couple of hours ago, does not directly indicate the source of the shelling,’ Nebenzya told the UN Security Council on Tuesday. – ‘We understand your position as head of the international regulator, but in the current situation it is essential to call things by their proper names.’ “

Москва запросила у Гросси пояснения по докладу МАГАТЭ о Запорожской АЭС [Moscow asks Grossi for clarifications on IAEA report on Zaporizhzhya NPP], Interfax, 7.9.2022,


The Russian media portal RIA Novosti (РИА Новости) reports on renewed shelling of the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant by the Ukrainian military. The Russian Defence Ministry is quoted as saying:

” ‘ The Kiev regime has resumed provocations to create the threat of a man-made disaster at the Zaporizhzhya NPP. During the day, two artillery shellings were registered on the settlement of Dacha Volna and a substation in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power plant,’ the ministry said.”

РИА Новости, В Минобороны рассказали о провокациях ВСУ у Запорожской АЭС [RIA Novosti, The Ministry of Defence reported provocations by the Armed Forces of Ukraine at the Zaporizhzhya NPP], Moscow, 17.9.2022,


The Director General of the IAEA passed on the information from Energoatom about the shelling of the Southern Ukraine nuclear power plant (SUNPP, ukr. PAES) to the world public (see below). 

In contrast, the situation at the Zaporizhzhya NPP (ZNPP) remains tense. The power supply from the nearby thermal power plant was switched off for reasons that are still unclear. The IAEA report states:

“The ZNPP – whose six reactors are currently in a cold shutdown state – still receives the electricity it needs for essential safety functions from a 750 KV external power line that was restored on Friday, but it now does not have access to back-up power from the grid, the IAEA experts said.” 

In conclusion, Director General Grossi is quoted as saying: “Any military action that threatens nuclear safety and security is unacceptable and must stop immediately.”

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Update 104 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine, Vienna 19.9.2022,


The National Nuclear Energy Generating Company “Energoatom” reports missile attacks on the Southern Ukraine NPP (SUNPP, located about 250 km, northwest of the Zaporizhzhya NPP (ZNPP): 

“Today, September 19, 2022, at 00:20 am, the russian army carried out a missile attack on the industrial site of the South Ukraine nuclear power plant [SUPNN or ukr. PAES]

A powerful explosion occurred just 300 m from the SUNPP reactors. The shock wave damaged the NPP buildings as well as over 100 windows were broken. One of the hydropower units of the Oleksandrivska HPP, which is part of the South Ukrainian power complex, has shut down. Three high-voltage power lines were down as well. […] Acts of nuclear terrorism committed by the russian military [Ukrainian text reads: “by the Russian fascists, see note, S.R. ] threaten the whole world. They should be stopped immediately to prevent a new disaster!” 

Енергоатом, Рашистські терористи обстріляли Південноукраїнську АЕС – ракета впала за 300 метрів від ядерних реакторів [Energoatom, Racist terrorists fired at the southern Ukrainian nuclear power plant – the missile fell 300 metres from the nuclear reactorst], Kiev, 19.9.2022,


In his report on the situation at the Zaporizhzhya NPP, the Director General of the IAEA confirms renewed shelling of the nuclear facility after a few days of calm. The IAEA staff stationed there informed him of explosions on the NPP site on 26 and 27 September 2022, as a result of which the windows of a turbine hall were broken. According to Rafael Grossi, the dangerous situation can only be eased by establishing a military protection zone. He hopes to achieve this goal soon through diplomatic negotiations with Ukraine and Russia. The report states:

“IAEA experts present at the ZNPP reported to Agency headquarters that shelling took place at around 5 pm local time yesterday near the facility’s electrical switchyard, a few hundred meters from the plant’s training centre, but there were no reports of damage. Other explosions were heard further away.

Today at 8 am, two explosions occurred near a channel that carries water from a reservoir to the plant for its cooling system, an essential element for nuclear safety. There was no damage to plant structures and equipment, but windows in the turbine hall of reactor unit 2 were broken, the IAEA experts said. According to senior ZNPP operating staff, the cause of the blasts is currently unclear and is being investigated, the Agency experts added.”

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Update 106 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine, Vienna, 27.9.2022,


Russian President Vladimir Putin published a decree according to which the Zaporizhzhya NPP is to become Russian property. For this purpose, Rosenergoatom will be founded as a joint-stock company, a sub-organisation of the Russian state corporation Rosatom. All current employees of the nuclear power plant will be taken over.

ЗАЭС перейдет в собственность России [Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, News], Moscow,; Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 05.10.2022 № 711, 


The Russian Defence Ministry accuses the Ukrainian military of firing on the Zaporizhzhya NPP. It said Kiev wanted to bring it back under its control.

“During the day, the city of Enerhodar and the area adjacent to the NPP were shelled twice by the armed forces of Ukraine from Grad multiple rocket systems. […]. Repair works would be completed to restore power supply to the NPP and the city of Enerhodar.“

Министерство обороны Российской Федерации (Минобороны России), Новости, 8.10.2022 [Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, News, 8.10.2022], Moscow,


The Director General of the IAEA, Raffel Grossi, has been engaged in shuttle diplomacy between Moscow and Kiev for days with the aim of establishing a safety zone around the Zaporizhzhya NPP. Meanwhile, there is repeated shelling and interruptions to external power supplies.

“The IAEA team of experts present at the ZNPP reported that the connection to its last remaining operating 750 kilovolt (kV) power line was cut around 9am local time. The plant’s emergency diesel generators automatically started operating to provide the six reactors with the electricity they need for cooling and other essential safety functions. […] The plant’s diesel generators have fuel for about 10 days. [… Grossi said:] ‘The situation at the plant is clearly untenable and immediate action is required to strengthen nuclear safety and security and prevent a nuclear accident from happening.‘ “

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Update 116 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine, Vienna, 12.10.2022,


The Ukrainian company Energoatom has again accused Russia of nuclear terrorism. It was responding to Moscow’s accusation that Kiev was building a dirty bomb from spent fuel rods of the Zaporizhzhya NPP, which it attributed to Russia.

“For two days already, the representatives of the russian authorities and all hostile propaganda have been claiming that Ukraine is allegedly preparing a “dirty nuclear bomb”, for which, according to the rf, spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste stored at Zaporizhzhzya NPP can be used.

“For even greater intimidation of the world, the russians published a fake map of the danger of radiation contamination with the epicenter precisely at ZNPP.”

Заяви росії про створення «брудної ядерної бомби» можуть свідчити про підготовку нею акта ядерного тероризму [Russia’s statements about building a “dirty nuclear bomb” may indicate that it is preparing a nuclear terrorist attack], Kiev 24.10.2022,


As the Russian news agency TASS reports, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu telephoned his counterparts in London, Paris, Washington and Ankara and warned them that Ukraine could use a “dirty bomb.” Weeks earlier, Moscow had threatened a nuclear counterstrike.

“Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu held telephone talks Sunday with British Defense Minister Ben Wallace, French Defense Minister Sebastien Lekornu and Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar. The Russian minister raised concerns with his colleagues about possible provocations by Ukraine with the use of a “dirty bomb.” In addition, Shoigu spoke on the phone with Pentagon chief Lloyd Austin on Friday and Sunday.

Austin later told his Ukrainian counterpart Alexei Reznikov during a phone conversation that Washington rejects Russia’s warnings regarding Kiev. U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken said Oct. 23 that Washington does not believe Russian warnings about Kiev’s use of a ‘dirty bomb’ are justified.”

Чижов: “грязную бомбу” можно создать и в кустарных усло­виях при наличии компонентов [Chizhov: A “dirty bomb” can also be created at home if the components are available], Moscow, 25.10.2022,


The US government publishes documents on the national defence strategy. In them they discuss the (first) use of nuclear weapons. The USA confirms its doctrine of a nuclear first strike, but changes the criteria for its use. The USA has moved to the “sole purpose declaration“, which opens up greater scope for interpretation.

Declaratory policy is informed by the threat, assessed adversary perceptions, Ally and partner perspectives, and our strategic risk reduction objectives. We conducted a thorough review of a broad range of opinions for nuclear declaratory policy – including both No First Use and Sole Purpose policies – and concluded that those approaches would result in an unacceptable level of risk in light of the range of non-nuclear capabilities being developed and fielded by competitors that could inflict strategic-level damage to the United States and its Allies and partners. Some Allies and partners are particularly vulnerable to attacks with non-nuclear means that could produce devastating effects. We retain the goal of moving toward a sole purpose declaration and we will work with our Allies and partners to identify concrete steps that would allow us to do so.“

U.S. Department of Defense, 2022 National Defense Strategy of The United States of America, including the 2022 Nuclear Posture Review and the 2022 Missile Defense Review, Wa­shington, 27.10.2022, 2003103845/-1/-1/1/2022-NATIONAL-DEFENSE-STRATEGY -NPR-MDR.PDF, p. 9


In his speech, the head of the Ukrainian energy company Energoatom encourages the Ukrainian armed forces to recapture the Zaporizhzhya NPP by force.

“Our soldiers are taking back Ukrainian cities from the invaders step by step, advancing further and further. Recently they liberated the city of Kherson and part of Kherson region from Russian occupation! […]

The Russians no longer have a chance. Therefore, the liberation of Enerhodar and Zaporizhzhia NPP is a matter of time, patience, endurance and heroism of Zaporizhzhia nuclear workers and residents of the temporarily occupied territories.

We believe in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, victory will be ours!”

Звернення президента ДП «НАЕК «Енергоатом» Петра Котіна [Address by Petro Kotin, President of NNEGC Energoatom], Kiev, 14.11.2022, 


The Ukrainian Nuclear Regulation Authority (SNRIU) announced that all Ukrainian nuclear power plants have been automatically shut down. This was triggered by a drop in frequency in the Ukrainian power grid because of the heavy Russian air attacks against the Ukrainian energy infrastructure. The NPPs now only produce electricity for their own needs.

According to the operating organization NNEGC Energoatom, on November 23, 2022, emergency protection was activated at Rivne, South Ukrainian and Khmelnytsky NPPs, which resulted in all power units being automatically shut down. This was due to a decrease in the frequency in the power system. Now the power units are operating in the design mode, without generating power to the grid.

Due to the decrease in frequency, Zaporizhzhia NPP’s own needs were not supplied from the grid. ZNPP is in blackout mode. The plant’s own electricity needs are met by emergency diesel generators.

The radiation background at the sites of Ukrainian NPPs is within normal limits.”

Ситуація на українських АЕС [The situation in the Ukrainian NPPs], Kiev, 23.11.2022,; and:


The Russian news portal RIA Novosti publishes an infographic on the impact sites on the site of the Zaporizhzhya NPP, which are said to be the result of shells from the Ukrainian army. Citing sources from the Russian Ministry of Defence, it says there have been a total of 329 impacts on the NPP site and the immediately neighbouring area since the beginning of August 2022:

Impact Points AKW Zaporizhzhya 2022

Обстрелы Запорожской АЭС, Инфографика [Shelling of Zaporizhzhya PNN, infographic], Ria Novosti, 6.12.2022, 

[Translation of the map inscription on the left: S.R.]


Russian President Vladimir Putin declares at a meeting of the UN Human Rights Council convened by Russia that he renounces the use of nuclear weapons. Russia has no nuclear first-strike doctrine and considers their possession merely as protection. At the same time, he accused the USA of deploying nuclear weapons outside its territory. He recalled British Prime Minister Liz Truss’ threat to use these weapons as well.

” ‘Considering that under no circumstances will Russia be the first to apply them [nuclear weapons]. If it won’t be the first under any circumstances, then it won’t be the second either. Because the possibilities of use in case of a nuclear strike on our territory are very limited,’ he added.  

Putin betonte, dass Russland Atomwaffen ‚eben als Schutz‘ betrachte. […]

Putin stressed that nuclear weapons are seen by Russia ‘precisely as protection’.

Our defense strategy, we see weapons of mass destruction and nuclear weapons as defense, is based on the so-called launching of a retaliatory strike. When there is a strike on us, we strike back,’ Putin said. […]

‘I have already said: we don’t have our nuclear weapons, including tactical weapons, on the territories of other countries, but the Americans do. They have them in Turkey and in a number of European countries. They train on the possibility of using the carriers of these countries to use American nuclear weapons. So far we have not done anything like that,” he explained.

Putin also recalled the words of former British Prime Minister Liz Truss on the possibility of her using nuclear weapons.”

Путин заявил, что ядерная угроза нарастает, но РФ не применит ядерное оружие первой [Putin says nuclear threat is growing, but Russia will not use nuclear weapons first], 9.12.2022,


The Russian medium Kommersant reports on the different proposals to establish a security zone around the Zaporizhzhya NPP. Russia is possibly prepared to withdraw its military, but does not want to hand over control of the NPP to the IAEA. Ukraine still insists on maximum demands such as the complete return of the NPP and the exclusion of Russia from the IAEA. The lowest common denominator would be an assurance not to fire on the NPP.

“According to him, there is no talk of a complete ceasefire in the region or demilitarisation of the site, but the parties must promise ‘not to fire at or from the plant’. Mr Grossi hopes to secure Europe’s largest power plant by the end of the year. Russia says it is possible. In Ukraine they are demanding that Russia be expelled from the IAEA for ‘nuclear terrorism’. […]

It was also reported last week that Russia had expressed to the IAEA its vision of creating a protective zone around a nuclear power plant but the essence of these proposals was not publicly disclosed. […]

In November, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted by a majority vote a resolution on Zaporizhzhya NPP, calling on Russia to ‘immediately give up its unfounded claims to ownership of the plant’. ROSATOM CEO Aleksey Likhachev called the document ‘unacceptable and inadequate’. In his opinion, Kiev perceived the resolution as carte blanche to bombard the plant.”

Елена Черненко, Конечная станция. В МАГАТЭ рассказали, какой может быть зона безопасности вокруг Запорожской АЭС [Elena Chernenko, Last stop. The IAEA says what the safety zone around the Zaporizhzhya NPP could look like], Komersant, 11.12.2022,